tests for the presence of acidic or alkaline adulterants in urine.
Normal pH levels should be in the range of 4.0 to 9.0. Values
outside of this range may indicate the
urine sample has been altered
or there may be a problem that needs medical attention.
Why the pH test is performed
pH is a measure of
how acidic or alkaline a urine sample.
The pH in blood is
maintained within the narrow range of 7.35 to 7.45. Your body
maintains this narrow range by using buffers -- chemicals that can
switch back and forth between 2 forms, a weak acid or weak base. The
buffers are only temporary "stop gaps" to avoid dramatic changes in
provider may want to test your urine pH to see if you are at risk
for kidney stones. Acidic urine is associated with xanthine, cystine,
uric acid, and calcium oxalate stones. Alkaline urine is associated
with calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, and magnesium phosphate
doctor may also order this test if you need to take certain
medications. Some medications are more effective in acidic or
alkaline environments. For example, streptomycin, neomycin, and
kanamycin are more effective in treating urinary tract infections
when the urine is alkaline.
Some medications are more
effective in acidic or alkaline environments. For example,
streptomycin, neomycin, and kanamycin are more effective in treating
urinary tract infections
The normal urine pH values range from 4.6 to 8.0.
What abnormal results mean:
A high urine pH (alkaline
urine) may indicate: Gastric suction, Renal or Kidney failure,
Renal or Kidney tubular acidosis, Urinary tract infection ,
A low urine pH (acidic
urine) may indicate: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (such as
emphysema), Diabetic ketoacidosis, Diarrhea, Starvation
How the pH test is performed
Collect a "clean-catch"
(midstream) urine sample. To obtain a clean-catch sample, men or
boys should wipe clean the head of the penis. Women or girls need to
wash the area between the lips (labia) of the vagina with soapy
water and rinse well.
As you start to urinate,
allow a small amount to fall into the toilet bowl (this clears the
urethra of contaminants). Then, in a clean container or sterile
container, catch about 1 to 2
ounces of urine and remove the container from the urine stream.
Remove the container from the urine stream without stopping the
flow. You may finish urinating into the toilet bowl. Then, either
give the urine sample person performing the test or set it aside if
performing the test yourself.
infants, the genital area is cleaned and dried, and then a
collection device is attached to collect the urine. Open a urine
collection bag (a plastic bag with an adhesive paper on one end),
and place it on your infant. For boys, the entire penis can be
placed in the bag and the adhesive attached to the skin. For girls
bag is placed over the labia. Place a diaper over the infant (bag
and all). After your baby has urinated, the urine (at least 20 cc)
is placed in a sterile container.
How to prepare for the test
the test will be conducted by your health care provider, he or she
may advise you to stop taking certain drugs that can affect the
results of the test. Do not stop taking any prescribed medication
unless advised to do so by a health profession (like your doctor).
a normal, balanced diet for several days before the test. Eat a
normal, balanced diet for several days before the test.
high in citrus fruits, vegetables, or dairy products can
increase your urine pH.
high in meat products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH.
How the test will feel:
The test involves only normal urination, and there is no discomfort.
What the risks are:
There are no risks.
Urine pH can be affected by various factors after collection such as
leaving the urine standing in an uncovered container. Bacteria
usually increase the pH as they break down urea in the urine to
A diet high in meat
products or cranberries can decrease your urine pH. Drugs that can
decrease urine pH include ammonium chloride, chlorothiazide
diuretics, and methenamine mandelate.
Urine pH can be affected by various factors. For more
information on a urine test, see
Urinalysis Test or visit UATest.com. Other related
Urine, complete list of
urine drug test.
7 Parameter Urine Test - pH
#DUC-111 - One Step
Specimen Validity Test (SVT) (25 tests per bottle).
Urine Adulteration Test Strips provide rapid,
semi-quantitative detection of 7 parameters (Creatinine, Nitrite,
Glutaraldehyde, pH, Specific Gravity, Oxidants /
in human urine. This is sometimes referred to as a
7 testing parameters
Easy to interpret color chart
2 year shelf life
- 1 minute
A rapid, one step screening test for the
simultaneous detection of Creatinine, Nitrite, Glutaraldehyde, pH,
Specific Gravity, and Oxidants/Pyridinium Chlorochromate (PCC) in
The One Step S.V.T. is a semi-quantitative, color
comparison screen for the detection of pH, creatinine, nitrite,
glutaraldehyde, specific gravity, and oxidants / pyridinium
chlorochromate (PCC) in human urine.
This test provides a preliminary screen only. A
more specific alternate chemical method must be used in order to
obtain a confirmed analytical result. Abnormal results should be
sent to a laboratory for confirmation.
Each of the plastic strips contains six (6)
chemically treated reagent pads. One (1) minute following the
activation of the reagent pads by the urine sample, the colors that
appear on the pads can be compared with the printed color chart on
the canister. The color comparison provides a semi-quantitative
screen for creatinine, nitrite, glutaraldehyde, pH, specific
gravity, and oxidants / pyridinium chlorochromate (PCC) in human
urine which can help assess the integrity of the urine sample.
What is adulteration?
Adulteration is the tampering of a urine specimen
with the intention of altering the test results. The use of
adulterants can cause false negative results in drug tests by either
interfering with the screening test and/ or destroying the drugs
present in the urine. Dilution may also be employed in an attempt to
produce false negative drug test results.
One of the best ways to test for adulteration or
dilution is to determine certain urinary characteristics such as
creatinine, pH, and specific gravity and to detect the presence of
glutaraldehyde, nitrite and oxidants /pyridinium chlorochromate
(PCC) in urine.
is a waste product of creatine; an amino-acid contained in
muscle tissue and found in urine.
person may attempt to foil a test by drinking excessive amounts
of water or diuretics such as herbal teas to “flush” the system.
Creatinine and specific gravity are two ways to check for
dilution and flushing, which are the most common mechanisms used
in an attempt to circumvent drug testing. Low creatinine and
specific gravity levels may indicate dilute urine. The absence
of creatinine (<5mg/dl) is indicative of a specimen not
consistent with human urine.
Specific gravity tests for sample
dilution. The normal range is from 1.003 to 1.030. Values
outside this range may be the result of specimen dilution or
tests for commonly used commercial adulterants such as Klear or
Whizzies. They work by oxidizing the major cannabinoid
Normal urine should contain no trace of nitrite.
Positive results generally indicate the presence of an
for the presence of an aldehyde. Adulterants such as UrinAid and
Clear Choice contain glutaraldehyde which may cause false
negative screening results by disrupting the enzyme used in some
immunoassay tests.³ Glutaraldehyde is not normally found in
urine; therefore, detection of glutaraldehyde in a urine
specimen is generally an indicator of adulteration.
tests for the presence of acidic or alkaline adulterants in
urine. Normal pH levels should be in the range of 4.0 to 9.0.
Values outside of this range may indicate the sample has been
Oxidants/PCC (Pyridinium Chlorochromate)
tests for the presence of oxidizing agents such as bleach
and hydrogen peroxide. Pyridinium chlorochromate (sold under the
brand name UrineLuck) is a commonly used adulterant.³ Normal
human urine should not contain oxidants or PCC.
The test is based on the color derived from the
chemical reaction between the chemical reagent on each test pad and
the urine sample.
Buffers and non-reactive
Oxidants / PCC
forensic use only. Do not use after the expiration date.
adulteration strips should remain in the sealed canister until
should be considered potentially hazardous and handled in the
same manner as an infectious agent.
The used test
strip should be discarded according to federal, state and local
STORAGE AND STABILITY
Store as packaged in the sealed canister at
15-30°C. The test strips must remain sealed in the canister until
use. DO NOT FREEZE. Do not use beyond the expiration date. Avoid
direct exposure to sunlight.
COLLECTION AND PREPARATION
specimen must be collected in a clean and dry container. Test urine
as soon as possible after collection.
For best results, test specimens immediately
following collection. Storage of urine specimens should not exceed 2
hours at room temperature or 4 hours refrigerated (2-8°C) prior to
Materials Required But Not Provided
DIRECTIONS FOR USE
Allow the adulteration strip to
equilibrate to room temperature (15-30 C) prior to testing.
strip(s) from the canister and recap tightly.
strip into the urine specimen and remove immediately.
Blot the test
gently on its side to remove excess urine. NOTE: It is important
to blot the test strip for consistent results.
in one (1) minute by comparing each pad with the color chart
printed on the canister. Do not interpret test results after
If the test
indicates adulteration, refer to your Drug Free Policy for
guidelines on handling adulterated specimens.
INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS
(Please refer to the illustration above)
results are obtained by visually comparing the reacted color blocks
on the strip to the printed color blocks on the canister. No
instrumentation is required.
Control standards are not supplied with this kit.
However, it is recommended that positive and negative specimens or
controls be tested as good laboratory practice to confirm the test
procedure and to verify proper test performance.
The adulteration tests included with this
product are meant to aid in the determination of abnormal specimens.
While comprehensive, these tests are not meant to be an
“all-inclusive” representation of possible adulterants.
Glutaraldehyde: Is not
normally found in urine. However certain metabolic
abnormalities such as ketoacidosis (fasting, uncontrolled diabetes
or high-protein diets) may interfere with the test results.
Elevated levels of protein in urine may cause abnormally high
specific gravity values.
human urine should not contain oxidants or PCC. The presence
of high levels of antioxidants in the specimen, such as ascorbic
acid, may result in false negative results for the oxidants/PCC pad.
Home Drug Test
BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SUGGESTED READING
Tietz NW. Textbook of Clinical Chemistry. W.B. Saunders Company.
Tsai, S.C. et.al., J. Anal. Toxicol. 1998; 22 (6): 474
Cody, J.T., “Specimen Adulteration in drug urinalysis. Forsenic Sci.
Rev., 1990, 2:63.
Mikkelsen, S.L. et.al., Clin. Chem. 1988; 34: 648
Hardman J, Limbird LE (Eds). Goodman & Gilman’s The
Pharmacological Basis of
Therapeutics, 10th Ed.,
McGraw-Hill Publishing. 2001, 1010.